Author : Smita Subhaschandra Kadadavar, Veeranna Lokapur, Deepak Nadig, Prabhu M H, Deepa Masur
Abstract : Introduction: Dengue fever has been known for more than a century in the tropical countries. Dengue
fever is now the most common cause of arboviral disease in the world, with an estimated annual occurrence
of 100 million cases of dengue fever and 250,000 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever and a mortality rate
of 25,000 per year. Most cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever are reported from Asia, where it is a leading
cause of hospitalization and death among children. Dengue fever presents with confusing clinical profile
and has to be differentiated from other febrile illnesses like malaria, typhoid, leptospirosis etc. Dengue
is diagnosed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and detection of NS1 antigen
with corresponding IgM, IgG antibodies by Enzyme immunoassay & Immunochromatographic test. These
tests may not be available in the periphery. So the hematological parameters like platelet count, hematocrit,
lecocyte count and peripheral smear findings will aid in the diagnosis of Dengue Fever.
Materials and Methods: 100 cases with proven diagnosis of dengue by serology were taken. Detailed
history, physical examination and investigations including Complete blood count, coagulation profile, Liver
function tests were done. Their stay in hospital and outcome were observed.
Results: Dengue infection was more common in adult age group with slight male preponderance. It
presented commonly as dengue fever with other constitutional symtoms. Petechial ecchymosis was the
most common sign elicited clinically. Hematological findings like raised hemotocrit, platelet count and
atypical lymphocytes were seen in majority of the cases. Supportive treatment was the mainstay mode of
management. Overall mortality was seen in 2% of the cases.
Conclusion: Raised hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral
smear will aid in early diagnosis of Dengue infection. Early recognition and prevention rather than
treatment of complications is most important for favourable outcome of the disease.
Keywords: Dengue fever, Hematocrit, Thrombocytopenia, Leucopenia, Atypical lymphocyte.